...Intra And Inter-Personal Competencies I have a classmate, Sammy. She is decided of having several problems among Intra- and Inter-Personal Competencies. I have done a number of researches on the problems and they will be discussed in detail by further studies. The three main problems that Sammy may be suffered are low self-concept, negative thoughts and poor family relationship. Those problems will be proved by studies at the following. Content Low self-concept Low self-esteem One of the critical parts of self-concept is self-esteem. It indicates a positive or negative orientation (Rosenberg, 1979, p.14). Level of self-esteem affects performance at many different tasks (Coopersmith, 1967, cited in Argyle, n.d.). Studies have found a significant proportion between self-esteem and grade-point-average (Baker, and beer, 1991, p.15). Besides academic achievement, intrinsic motivation may be also related to self-esteem (Skaalvik, 1997, cited in Hanna, et. Al., 2000, p.15). In this case, Sammy had an unfavorable result in the public examination and she is lack of motivation. Low self esteem may regularly let us have a negative compare of us and others (Elliott, n.d.). Sammy always compare herself with peers and just focus on the part which advantageous to her. Therefore, she may be low self-esteem. Dealing with low self-esteem She could design an independent self-respect to others....
commissioned Bowman to conduct further analysis of these data. At the same workshop, economist David Deming presented his academic research drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to investigate the labor market rewards for social skills (Deming, 2015). The committee commissioned Deming to conduct further analysis of those data.
Commissioned Analysis No. 1
The committee asked Bowman to draw once again on the Wabash Study data (a sample of 8,475 students) to reanalyze data on the relationships among openness to diversity and challenge, college experiences, and student success and to identify possible differences in these relationships for various student groups (genders, underrepresented minorities). In addition to openness to diversity (i.e., intercultural competency), the committee asked him to analyze (both overall and for different subgroups) the relationships among the following three competencies, college experiences, and student success:
- ethics (moral reasoning),
- civic engagement/citizenship, and
Bowman examined four of the six competencies discussed in this chapter, omitting lifelong learning/career orientation and communication. He used measures of the four competencies available in the Wabash data (see Box 5-1).
Bowman (2016) reports that with the exception of ethics, all of the other competencies he examined (i.e., teamwork, intercultural/diversity competence, and civic engagement/citizenship) were statistically significant predictors of college engagement. These competencies were all measured at college entrance, while college engagement (experiences) was measured near the end of the first year, obviating the possibility that the college engagement influenced the status of the competencies (see Box 5-1). However, his results for GPA were quite different: only ethics was a statistically significant predictor of GPA in years 1 and 4 (r = 0.103-0.108, p <.001), while the effects of the other competencies were not consistently statistically significant in both years. Bowman suggests that ethics is likely a cognitive competency, which would account for its ability to predict grades but not engagement. Finally, turning to retention, the only consistently significant predictor of retention was civic engagement (r = 0.207, p <.001; r = 0.073; p <.05; and r = 0.115, p <.001 in years 2, 3, and 4, respectively). In the paper describing his analysis and results, Bowman (2016) acknowledges