# Quantitative Methods Of Communication Research Papers

### Description

*Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach, *Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning process. After giving students the tools they need to locate, conduct, collect, and present their research, the text provides them with the opportunity to immediately apply these skills in research scenarios.

### New to this Edition

- A new chapter on big data and how researchers use it
- Coverage of conflicts of interest in Chapter 3: Research Ethics
- A thorough discussion of the major epistemological traditions within the field of communication
- A new section on presenting research to external audiences highlighting the differences between research for academic audiences and research for the general public
- Presentation of valuable information in a side-bar feature without disrupting the narrative
- A new section on ordinary vs. scientific ways of knowing
- Updated references and bolded key terms throughout
- Examination of the modern use of infographics to display complicated statistical information
- A new section on ex-post-facto experiments to examine how many experiments may not follow the traditional guidelines

### Table of Contents

**Chapter 1 An Introduction to Communication Research**

The History of the Social Sciences

The Nature of Communication

Understanding the Book's Format

Research outside the Walls of Academia

**Chapter 2 Empirical Research**

**Ways of Knowing**

Epistemology

Ordinary vs. Scientific Ways of Knowing

**The Scientific Approach to Communication Research**

Scientific Method

Theories

Predictions/Hypotheses

Observations

Empirical Generalizations

Conclusion

Research outside the Walls of Academia

**Chapter 3 Research Ethics**

**Defining Ethics**

Good means-Good End: Ethical Behavior

Bad Means-Bad End: Unethical Behavior

Bad Means-Good End: Machiavellian Ethic

Good Means-Bad End: Subjective Ethic

**The Belmont Report's Effect on Research Ethics**

Informed Consent

Principle of Beneficence

Justice

**Institutional Review Boards**

Institutional Review Board Basics

Informed Consent

Institutional Review Board Processes

Basic IRB Functions

Advanced IRB Functions

**Specific Ethical Issues for Research**

Data Accuracy

Data Sharing

Duplicate Data Publication

Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision

Participant Identity Disclosures

Authorship Credit

Conflicts of Interest

Plagiarism

Source Not Cited Types of Plagiarism

Source Cited Types of Plagiarism

**Ethical Research outside Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 4 Searching for Previous Research and APA Style**

Step One: Identifying the Topic

**Step Two: Clarifying the Research Question and Generating Key Terms**

Stating the Topic in the Form of a Research Question

Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms

**Step Three: Locating Sources of Information**

Types of Information Sources

Locating Information Sources

Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias

Electronic Databases

The World Wide Web

Working with Librarians

Evaluating Web Sources

**Step Four: Organizing and Evaluating Information**

Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format

Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format

What Information Needs to be Referenced?

Citing Sources of Information

Parenthetical Citations

Quotations and Paraphrases

**APA Paper Formatting**

Creating a Title Page

Creating an Abstract

Creating the First Page

Creating the Reference Page

Conclusion

**Chapter 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews**

The Abstract

The Introduction

Attention-Getter

Using Statistics or Claims

Posing a Rhetorical Question

Using an Acknowledged Fact

Using a Story or Illustration

Quoting or Acknowledging a Source

Link to Topic

Significance of Topic

Espousal of Credibility

Thesis and Preview

**Literature Review**

Five Reasons FOR Literature Reviews

Previous Research

Chronological

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

Problem-Cause-Solution

Psychological

Categorical/Topical

General to Specific

Specific to General

Known to Unknown

**Study**

**Rationale**

Method Section

Method Section

Participants

Apparatus

Procedure

Instrumentation

**Results Section**

Discussion Section

The Conclusion

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature

Preparing a First Draft

Step 1: Identify Your General Topic

Discussion Section

The Conclusion

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature

Preparing a First Draft

Step 2: Determine the Type of Study you are Conducting

Step 3: Determine what Variables You will Examine

Step 4: Search for Primary Sources

Step 5: Obtain Full Text References

Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials

Step 7: Narrow Your List of References

Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics

Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References

Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps

Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline

Step 12: Write

Conclusion

**Chapter 6 Variables**

**How Are Research Projects Developed?**

Variables: Units of Analysis

Types of Units

Aspects of Variables

Variables: Units of Analysis

Types of Units

Aspects of Variables

Variable attributes

Variable values

Understanding relationships and Differences

Relationships

Differences

**Types of Variables**

Variable Levels

Variable Levels

Nominal Variables

Ordinal Variables

Interval Variables

Likert

Semantic Differential

Staple's

Scalogram

Ratio Variables

**Communication Variables**

Nominal Variables

Ordinal Variables

Interval Variables

Common Interval Variable Measures

Communication Apprehension

Ethnocentrism

Humor Assessment

Nonverbal Immediacy

Sociocommunicative Orientation

Willingness to Communicate

Beliefs and Attitudes

Ratio Variables

**Writing Up Scales Using APA Style**

Participants

Procedures

Instrumentation

Conclusion

**Chapter 7 Measurement**

Numbers and Things

Numbers and Things

**Review of Measurement Levels**

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

**A History of Measurement**

Likert scales

Semantic differential

**Measuring Communication**

Personality Traits/States

Beliefs and Attitudes

Knowledge

**Developing Your Operationalization**

Conceptualization

Operationalization

**Constructing Questions**

One Measure, Multiple Factors

One Measure, Multiple Factors

Finding Mental Measures

**Measurement and Statistical Analysis**

Research

Research

**Outside the Walls of Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 8 Reliability and Validity**

Reliability

Scalar Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Alternate Forms Reliability

Split-Half Reliability

Cronbach's Alpha Reliability

Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha

SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha

Excel and Cronbach's Alpha

APA Discussion

Alpha Reliabilities from this Book

Reliabilities in the Real World

**Improving Reliability of Measurement**

Validity

Validity

Face or Content Validity

Criterion Validity

Predictive

Concurrent

Retrospective

Construct or Factorial Validity

**Validity Threats**

Problems with Measurement

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Problems with Measurement

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Conclusion

**Chapter 9 Survey**

**Research**

When to Use a Survey

Do You Know What You Want to Ask?

Do You Really Need to Collect New Data?

Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?

**Is Your Goal Generalizability?**

**How to Conduct Survey Research**

STEP 1: Picking Your Questions

Nominal Level Questions

Ordinal Level Questions

Interval Level Questions

Ratio Level Questions

Open-Ended Questions

STEP 2: Creating Clear Instructions

STEP 3: Study Design

STEP 4: Data Processing and Analysis

STEP 5: Pilot Testing

Use Actual Survey Population Members

Anticipate Survey Context

Test Parts of the Survey

Determining a Pilot Sample Size

Ask Questions After Someone Completes the Survey

**Disseminating Your**

**Surveys**

Interviewing

Face-to-Face Interviewing

Telephone Interviewing

Self-Administration

Mass Administration

Mailed Administration

Internet Administration

Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveying

**Problem Areas Associated with Survey Research**

Response Rate

Unit Nonresponse

Item Nonresponse

Effects of Nonresponse

Improving Response Rates

**Translating Surveys into Other Languages**

Semantic Equivalence

Conceptual Equivalence

Normative Equivalence

Simple Direct Translation

Modified Direct Translation

Translation/Back-Translation

Parallel Blind Technique

Random Probe

**Using the Research Project Worksheet**

Question

Design

Setting

Participants

Specific Characteristics

Recruitment

Consent

Variables

Independent Variables

Dependent Variables

Hypotheses/Research Questions

Statistical Testing

Tentative Study Title

Principal Researcher(s)

**Measurement outside of Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 10 Content Analysis**

**Conducting a Content Analysis**

Theory and Rationale

conceptualization

Operationalization

Coding schemes

Sampling

Training and Pilot Reliability

Introduction to Coding Book

Sample Coding

Coding of Initial Data

Initial Reliability

Retraining

Final Coding

Final Reliability

Tabulation and Reporting

Conclusion

**Chapter 11 Experimental Design**

What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?

Rationale for Experimental Research

Aspects of Experimental Design

Random Assignment

Manipulation of the Independent Variable

Measurement of the Dependent Variable

Controlling an Experiment

Conducting an Experiment

Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent

Random Assignment

Manipulate the Independent Variable

Measure the Dependent Variable

Debriefing

Threats to Experimental Validity

Historical flaw

Maturation

Testing flaw

Regression to the Mean

Selection Threat

Attrition

**Common Experimental Designs**

Preexperimental Designs

One-Shot Case Study

One-Group Pretest Posttest Design

Static Group Comparisons

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Pretest-Posttest Design

Time Series

Multiple Time Series

Switching Replications Design

True Experimental Designs

Pretest-Posttest Design

Two-Group Posttest-Only Design

Randomized Switching Replications Design

Solomon Four-Group Design

**Final Thoughts on Experiments**

Conclusion

**Chapter 12 Big Data**

**What is the Data in Big Data?**

Human Generated Data

Machine Generated Data

**Big Data?**

Big Data Explained

Laney's 3Vs

Volume

Velocity

Variety

Four More V's

Veracity

Variability

Visualization

Value

**Big Data and the Cloud**

Understanding the Cloud

The Cloud and Data

Big Data in the Cloud

**Big Data Analysis**

Data Mining

Monitoring & Anomalies

**Communication and Big Data**

Big Data

Big Data

**Ethics**

Privacy

Identity

Ownership

Reputation

**Chapter 13 Sampling Methods**

Why Use a Sample?

Population

Sample

The Sampling Process

Selecting a Sample Design

**PROBABILITY SAMPLING**

Simple Random Samples

Stratified Random Samples

Cluster Samples

Systematic Samples

**Sampling Error**

Nonprobability Samples

Nonprobability Samples

Convenience Samples

Volunteer Samples

Purposive Samples

Quota Samples

Network Sample

**Determining Sample Size**

Common Sense Sample Recruiting

Common Sense Sample Recruiting

Ethical Recruitment

Conclusion

**Chapter 14 Hypothesis Testing**

Hypotheses

One-Tailed Hypotheses

Two-Tailed Hypotheses

Research Questions

Directional Research Questions

Nondirectional Research Questions

Alternative & Null Hypotheses

**Hypothesis Testing Case Study**

Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study

**From Random Samples to a Whole Population**

Testing for Significance

Testing for Significance

Step 1: Set the Probability Level

Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test

Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values

**Testing for Power**

Effect Sizes

Understanding Error

Effect Sizes

Understanding Error

The Confidence Interval

Power

Type I Error

Type II Error

Conclusion

**Chapter 15 Descriptive Statistics**

The Benefits of Statistics

Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Frequency Distributions

SPSS and Frequency Distributions

Excel and Frequency Distributions

Frequency Distributions and Charts

Skewness & Kurtosis

**Measures of Variability**

Range

Sum of Squares

Variance

Standard deviation

**Data Set Variability**

Conclusion

**Chapter 16 Chi-Square Test of Independence**

Case Study Introduction

Chi-Square Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Chi-Square Test of Independence

Computer Printouts of the Chi-Square Test of Independence

SPSS and Chi-Squares

Excel and Chi-Squares

APA Write-Up

Discussion of Findings

Post-Hoc APA Write-Up

**Biological Sex and Book Edition**

Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article

Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Chi-Squares outside**

**Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 17 Independent Samples t-Tests**

Case Study Introduction

Independent Samples t-Test Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Independent t-Test

Computer Printouts of the Independent t-Test

SPSS and t-Tests

Excel and t-Tests

APA Write-Up (SPSS)

APA Write-Up (Excel)

Discussion of Findings

**Biological Sex and Communication Apprehension**

APA Write-Up (SPSS)

Discussion

**Calculating Effect Sizes**

Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article

Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Paired t-Tests**

t-Tests outside Academia

t-Tests outside Academia

Conclusion

**Chapter 18 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)**

Case Study Introduction

One-Way ANOVA Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the One-Way ANOVA

Computer Printouts of the One-Way ANOVA

SPSS and One-Way Anovas

Multiple Comparison Tests

Excel and One-Way Anovas

APA Write-Up (Without Chart)

APA Write-Up (With Chart)

Discussion of Findings

**Political Affiliation and Humor Assessment**

APA Write-Up

Discussion

**Discussion of the Boiarsky, Long, and Thayer Article**

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**One-way ANOVAs outside Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 19 Correlation**

Correlation Background Information

Types of Relationships

Correlation Not Causation

Correlation Assumptions

**Case Study**

**Introduction**

**Step-by-Step Approach to the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation**

Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

SPSS and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations

Excel and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations

APA Write-Up

Discussion

**Relationships Between Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Beliefs About Public Speaking**

APA Write-Up

A Note about R

**Reading Large Correlation Tables**

Discussion of the Chesebro Article

Discussion of the Chesebro Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Discussion of the Punyanunt Article**

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Correlations outside Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 20 Regression**

Case Study Introduction

Regression Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to a Linear Regression

Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression

SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions

Excel and the Simple Linear Regression

APA Write-Up

Discussion

**Relationships Between Communication Apprehension and Beliefs About Public Speaking**

APA Write-Up

**Understanding Multiple Linear Regressions**

APA Write-Up

Discussion

**Discussion of the Wrench and Booth-Butterfield Article**

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Discussion of the Rocca and Vogl-Bauer Article**

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

**Regressions outside Academia**

Conclusion

**Chapter 21 Advanced Statistical**

**Procedures**

Difference Tests

Factorial Anova

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Analysis of Covariance

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Repeated Measures Anova

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

**Relationship Tests**

Path Analysis

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Structural Equation Modeling

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Factor Analysis

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Canonical Correlations

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Conclusion

**Chapter 22**

**Presenting Research**

Writing a Discussion Section

Providing a Summary of Major Findings

Providing an Interpretation of Findings

Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies

Acknowledging Limitations

Discussing Implications and future directions

**Writing the Abstract**

**Presenting at Conferences**

Divisions and Interest Groups

Divisions and Interest Groups

Submitting Research for Conference Review

Types of Conference Presentations

Paper Presentations

Poster Presentations

Scholar-to-Scholar Posters

Panel Discussions

**Publication**

Journal Review Process

Submission Process

Review Process

**Research outside the Walls of Academia**

Writing for Business

Research and the General Public

Writing Statistical Stories

Infographics

Conclusion

Appendix A Qualitative Research

Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire

Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives

### Features

- An introduction to the fundamentals of communication research, from library skills to basic mathematical concepts
- An examination of the three most common techniques used in communication research: survey, content analysis and experiment
- A guide to presenting research findings, from delivering research papers at conferences to submitting original research for publication
- A step-by-step introduction to statistical tools and guided research assignments based on actual data-driven research questions

### About the Author(s)

Jason S. Wrench is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and Media at the State University of New York at New Paltz.

Candice Thomas-Maddox is Regional Coordinator and Associate Professor of Communication Studies at Ohio University Lancaster.

Virginia Peck Richmond is Professor and Chair of the Communication Studies Department at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emerita) at West Virginia University.

James C. McCroskey was Scholar in Residence in the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emeritus) at West Virginia University.

### Previous Publication Date(s)

November 2012

January 2008

### Reviews

"If you're teaching a quantitative methods course, this is the best of all alternatives. Very thorough approach." --Douglas A. Ferguson, *College of Charleston*

"A thorough review of the major methodological choices facing communication researchers full of examples drawn directly from the field." --Bree McEwan, *Western Illinois University *

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