This article contains tips, examples and guidance to help students produce an A* grade GCSE or A Level Art sketchbook. It outlines best practice in terms of annotation, content and page layout, and gives ideas and recommendations for students of any discipline (including Painting / Fine Art, Graphic Design, Sculpture, Printmaking, Photography, Textiles and Fashion students). It is likely to benefit those studying under a range of examination boards, as well as those producing sketchbooks for other high school qualifications, such as IB Art (the Investigation Workbook / IWB) and NCEA Level 3 Scholarship.
What should an A Level or GCSE Art sketchbook contain?
A sketchbook is a creative document that contains both written and visual material. It is a place for researching, exploring, planning and developing ideas – for testing, practising, evaluating and discussing your project. It is the place where you learn from other artists and express and brainstorm ideas.
The sketchbook is an important part of your Coursework project. It shows the journey (or development) towards your final piece and usually contains:
- Drawings, diagrams, thumbnails, composition plans, paintings and/or designs (particularly those that are incomplete or experimental)
- Practise and trials of different techniques and processes
- A range of mixed mediums and materials
- Evidence of first-hand responses to subject matter and artworks, demonstrated through observational drawings, photographs and annotated pamphlets and sketches from exhibitions or gallery visits. (Note: the sketchbook must NOT be used as a dumping ground for fliers and pamphlets. If you are going to glue something in, evaluate it, discuss its relevance and explain how it helps to inform your own work)
- Digital printouts of relevant artist work
- Annotation (see below)
Note: The sketchbook should NOT be used as an all-purpose journal for doodling cartoon characters or scribbling notes to a friend. All work contained within your sketchbook must support your Coursework project as a whole.
How to annotate an A Level or GCSE Art sketchbook
The following tips and guidelines should help you understand how to add quality notes to your pages:
- Reveal your own thinking and personal responses (rather than regurgitating facts or the views of others)
- Explain the starting points and ideas, emphasising personal relevance and your own connections to subjects
- Critically analyse and compare artwork of relevant artist models (both historical and contemporary artists, from a range of cultures). Discuss aesthetics, use of media, technique, meaning/emotion/ideas and the influence of an artist upon your own work. While it is important to conduct research into your artist models (and to convey an understanding of this information), avoid copying or summarising large passages of information from other sources. Instead, select the information that you think is useful for your project and link it with your own viewpoints and observations. Use research findings to make you sound clever and knowledgeable – to prove that you are aware of the artists and cultural influences around you – and to help you to critically evaluate artworks (by giving you background information and a peek into the mind of an artist): do not use it to fill your sketchbook with boring facts
- Demonstrate good subject knowledge, using correct vocabulary (phrases such as ‘strong contrast’, ‘draws the eye’ and ‘focal point’ etc)
- Reference of all images, artwork and text from other sources, ensuring that artists, websites and books are acknowledged (it should be obvious to an examiner which work is yours when viewing a page, so cite sources directly underneath the appropriate image. Photographs taken by yourself should be clearly labelled, so examiners know the work is yours and reward you for it)
- Communicate with clarity. It doesn’t matter whether you jot down notes or use full sentences, but never use ‘txt’ speak and try to avoid incorrect spelling, as this indicates sloppiness and can hint to the examiner that you are a lower calibre candidate
When annotating a GCSE or A Level Art sketchbook, it may benefit you to contemplate the following:
- What subjects / themes / moods / issues / messages are explored? Why are these relevant or important to the artist (or you)?
- What appeals to you visually about this artwork?
- How does the composition of the artwork (i.e. the relationship between the visual elements: line, shape, colour, tone, texture and space) help to communicate ideas and reinforce a message? Why might this composition have been chosen? (Discuss in terms of how the visual elements interact and create visual devices that ‘draw attention’, ‘emphasise’, ‘balance’, ‘link’ and/or ‘direct the viewer through the artwork’ etc.)
- What mediums, techniques (mark-making methods), styles and processes have been used? How do these communicate a message? How do they affect the mood of the artwork and the communication of ideas? Are these methods useful for your own project?
- How does all of the above help you with your own artwork?
Remember that these questions are a guide only and are intended to make you start to think critically about the art you are studying and creating. If you need further help with analysing artist work, the article about writing the Personal Study contains a section about critical analysis which you are likely to find useful.
NCEA Level 3 Scholarship Printmaking workbook exemplars, sourced from NZQA:
NCEA Level 3 Scholarship Printmaking workbook exemplars, sourced from NZQA:
Sketchbook Presentation Ideas
Layout and presentation is an area that many GCSE and A Level students struggle with – often spending hours adding decorative features to their sketchbooks that make little difference to final grades. In appearance, a sketchbook should be reminiscent of what you might expect an artist or designer to create. It should not be a tacky ‘school project’, with colourful headings and sparkly backgrounds. It does not need to be – and indeed, should not be – heavily structured or ‘over worked’. It does not need to be rigidly ordered, excessively flowery or decorative. You do not need to spend time adding borders; typing out the annotation or working obsessively over pages again and again. The sketchbook is NOT meant to be a complete a book of finished artworks and illustrations; it is meant to be creative document of exploration and investigation. A place where an art student thinks, works things out and learns.
This does not mean, of course, that your sketchbook should be unattractive. Indeed, to get an A* it must look stunning.
Guidelines for presenting an A* quality sketchbook are as follows:
- Select a good quality sketchbook and/or a collection of artist papers and found materials. The difference between work produced upon cheap, flimsy sketchbook pages that warp at the mere hint of moisture and that produced on thick, rich, ‘wet strength’ paper can be enormous. Even a garish cover design can negatively influence enthusiasm. If you have a choice in this area, buy a quality sketchbook and/or collection of paper / drawing surfaces. Begin with something that inspires you.
- Let the artwork shine. Do not distract from your practical work by using large lettering, decorative borders, or unnecessary framing or mounting. Do not spend weeks researching, preparing and reworking beautiful backgrounds – wild drips of coffee, torn paper, layer upon layer of careful speckled mediums – if this compromises the amount of time you spend on the artwork itself. Producing quality art or design work is your number one goal.
- Vary page layouts to provide variety and visual interest. Some pages should have many illustrations; some should have single, full-page artworks; others should be somewhere in between. Position items carefully on the page as you work: making sure pages are well-composed.
- Use a consistent style of presentation, so that a consistent visual language unites the sketchbook. Some students are drawn towards hard-edged, ordered presentation methods (often those studying graphic design, for example); others prefer messier, looser, gestural presentation styles. Neither is better than the other: both can be amazing. Inconsistency, however (pages jumping from one presentation style to the next), can result in a submission that is distracting, busy and hard on the eye.
- Be selective. More is not necessarily better. Although examiners look to reward candidates and have your best interests at heart, bulking up your sketchbook with poor work does you no favours. Weak work can set off alarm bells for an examiner, leading them to be on the lookout for potential weaknesses elsewhere. This does not mean that you should discard everything which is not perfect (work should rarely be thrown away, as most things can be worked over and saved for far less effort than would be required starting anew), but you must discriminate. Don’t automatically include everything. Select work which shows the journey your project has taken and presents your skill in the best light.
- Prioritise visual work above annotation. It doesn’t matter how intelligent, well informed or clever your annotation is – it cannot redeem rushed, poorly executed practical work. Only once images on a page are complete (or as complete as needed) should you fill some of the gaps with notes. Even the hurried addition of annotation can be done harmoniously – making a sketchbook page appear thorough and well-balanced. Use text as a compositional element. Write neat and small (this way spelling or grammatical errors are less obvious), and – if your examination board allows it – in pencil (so that mistakes can be easily changed); otherwise, write in black or white pen: not ink that switches colour every sentence or is ‘enhanced’ by hearts on the ‘i’s.
- Give every page of your sketchbook some love. Use each page as an opportunity to remind the examiner that you are a hard-working, dedicated student who cares passionately about this subject. This does not mean that your sketchbook must be crammed to the brim with intense, laboured work (sometimes an expressive, ten minute charcoal drawing on a page is all that is needed) but that each part of your sketchbook is produced with care and dedication.
Examples of great art sketchbooks
The guidance above contains general tips, advice and best practice for GCSE and A Level Art students. We have also begun a series of articles showcasing outstanding Art sketchbook examples for each of the following areas:
These articles contain inspirational sketchbook pages from a large number of students and a few selected artists, showcasing different approaches, techniques and presentation methods. It is hoped that they provide a motivational resource to inspire others!
A final piece of inspiration: this Youtube clip shows a brief glimpse into sculptor Paul Komoda’s sketchbook. Simply beautiful:
Now I'm no expert in the field of assessment and marking that's for sure, but I have done enough of it as a teacher to know a thing or two about doing it well. But I was not always a great marker. As a PGCE student I struggled with the best of them. It was like raw hell to me, I just could not understand how anyone could possibly do this marking malarkey on a regular basis.
As I began my NQT year I began to keep up with the marking load, just about. I was happy with my progress, until one day I was dealt a foul blow. Half-termly book monitoring had just taken place and I had been very good, got all the right books in to the right teacher at the right time. Then my head of department came around with a photocopied booklet and handed it to me. As I looked through the booklet of top tips and things to avoid I began to see that all the things to avoid actually applied to me. I felt so embarrassed and a little ashamed that I was getting it so wrong when I thought it was so right.
So began my mission to be a 'super marker.' I took every bit of advice that was given to me and made it my new marking Bible. So below are the top five marking techniques:
Marking and reflection
I can remember the lesson that I realised that full-on marking is simply not necessary all of the time. I had been up late once again marking a heap of year 9 books. I had marked those books to within an inch of their lives, nearly killing myself in the process. The lesson began. I handed the books back to the pupils and allowed them time to mull over the mountain of comments filling every possible space. A silence fell over the room. I stood at the front of the class smiling and nodding to myself about what a wonderful job I had done. Then one kid raised his hand: "Miss, I'm not being funny but is my work shit coz you have bloody ripped it to shreds here! I can't see much I have done right. You have written more than me, miss." I was gutted to say the least. But he was right. I had done too much. Where on earth should they start with a book marked like that?
There is a place for in-depth, all inclusive marking perhaps once a term, no more. However, most of the time I stick to focused marking because I find it is much easier for the students to digest. I find it is much better that teachers find a key focus, something that will really make the difference and move them on and focus on that. Share the focus with the students before they complete the task and break it down, then off they go. They will know what you have marked for and be able to connect with is straight away. Manageable for us and them alike, everyone is happy.
When I began teaching I was so concerned with making them stay in their seats and finish the task that I very rarely thought about rewards. The reward is the acquisition of knowledge and the sense of achievement students gain from getting a concept, right? Well, yes of course, that is true, but we all need motivators. I remember the first sheet of stickers that were given to me, with the hushed words: "I'm not supposed to give these to PGCE students so don't tell anyone."
I don't care what anyone says, everyone loves a sticker. I now use stickers every time I mark work be it year 7 or year 13. I will only reward someone with a sticker if I feel they have really progressed in their work, I let them know this and they always love it. A little sparkle in their eye appears even if they then pretend not to have noticed. I'm sure there is room for some sort of teacher sticker scheme, I know it would motivate me.
I honestly do not think I did effective student-centred marking until I was a good few years into teaching. I remember being observed in a lesson where I used peer marking as part of it. My observer asked why I did the peer marking section of the lesson and what I wanted to achieve. I suddenly realised I had missed the point of peer marking.
Now I use peer marking frequently with all key stages. I will share with them the marking criteria I must use when mark their work, get them to reword it or highlight most important things that are being assessed prior to the task. I do this as standard at all ages with all ability groups. We discuss the skills and levels as a class or in groups. I allow them to choose the levels they are aiming for and connect with that level in some manner. Once the task is complete we will revisit the mark schemes they have deconstructed, clarify any issues with it now the task has been completed. Then peer marking will take place with their study buddies. I always model the task and the marking, talking them through the thinking process. I focus them on how I mark their books for guidance. We use green pen for peer/self-marking and a different consistent colour for my marking. Works like a dream if you keep practising it.
Another favourite tool is my verbal feedback stamper. I carry this around with me to all my lessons. I generally use it as I walk around when pupils are working in groups or individually, I discuss an element of whatever they are doing in depth, stamp their books and ask them to note bullet points down.
Individual marking meetings
A few years ago I was teaching a very challenging year 11 class. We were studying Macbeth and working on a question about how a key character was presented. The students could gather points about the character and collect quotes but when it came to finding their own ideas to explain these points and quotes they were completely stuck. I began to meet each student individually to discuss their draft essay feedback and see if I could get them thinking on their own. One-by-one they began to gain confidence.
I love these sessions. Once each half-term I hold individual marking meetings with all my classes. I set the class up to do some silent work or reading, often with some classical music in the background and set about meeting each student one by one to quietly discuss their work and progress. I time this so that it falls just before to reports going home so that they can fully understand where they are before a barrage of levels come at them in their report card. It is really special, you get to see them in a completely different light and is really effective for making all your students feel valued.
Sarah Findlater can be found on Twitter @MsFindlater. She has worked in London schools since she began teaching. She has been KS3 coordinator for English, head of languages and communications faculty (English, media and MFL) and is now an assistant headteacher.